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Postby smurf on Fri Aug 27, 2004 10:01 am

a'kum
thanks kak tirana kerana dapat cari artikel tu.. smurf pun tak dapat cari... rasanya artikel tu ada sambungannya..(yg berkaitan ftalat tu)... nanti smurf semak balik majalah pengguna tu kat rumah..

batuk anak smurf makin buruk skrg ni... ntah la... susah benar nak makan ubat... rasanya smurf nak try masukkan ubat dlm susu pulak.. harap2 menjadi.. risau juga nak campur dgn susu sbb 1st time smurf buat macam tu, anak tak nak menyusu sampai seminggu.. :( ... tapi tak der cara lain lagi dah... kita pujuk tak menjadi...kita paksa lagi tak menjadi.. ubat dah berbotol habis tapi bukannya habis masuk perut, tapi habis tumpah... entahlah.. org kata setiap kanak2 tu unik berbeza antara satu sama lain.. hehehe cabaran. :D
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Postby smurf on Fri Aug 27, 2004 11:22 am

a'kum

kat bawah ni, smurf paste beberapa artikel ttg ftalat dalam toys.. maaf yer sbb dlm english (tak dapat cari yg bm punyer).

SOME QUICK FACTS ABOUT PVC TOYS

ABOUT THE GREENPEACE TESTS

71 toys were purchased from 17 countries in 1997.
The majority purchased (63) were PVC or had PVC sections.
Phthalates comprised between 10 to 40% of the total weight of all the PVC toys.
DINP was the most commonly found phthalate softnener.

KEY FACTS ABOUT SOFTENERS
Softeners are not chemically bound to the PVC polymer but float around like water in a sponge.
It has been known for 30 years that phthalates leach from soft PVC.
Over 90% of phthalates are used in PVC production.
Phthalates are global pollutants - they are found everywhere from Antarctic sediment to air over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
Independent laboratory studies on DINP show: damage to the liver and kidney in some cases, effects on the reproductive tract, increased incidence of certain forms of cancer and diverse effects on development and metabolism.

Recently DINP has been found to be weakly estrogenic in some cases.
The hormone system in animals, including humans, is highly sensitive working at parts per trillion. Timing of exposure is also critical.
Suspected effects of endocrine disruption include: abnormalities to reproductive system reduce and damaged sperm immune suppression reduction in cognitive abilities ; behavioural changes

INFORMATION ABOUT TOYS
Manufacturers do not provide information on additives in toys.
Of all plastics used for toys, only about 5% is PVC.
In 1996 GP met twice with the International Council of Toy Industries.
Government studies have been published showing leaching of phthalates from PVC toys:

April 18, 1997 Danish EPA found three teething rings leaching phthalates exceeding allowable limits set by the EU for food by up to 40 times.

July 16, 1997 Dutch Ministry of Health found total daily intake of DINP was exceeded for 5 to 50% of all babies sucking on PVC teethers.

April 24, 1998 - The EU Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment concluded that PVC teething rings made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) leach up to ten times what is considered acceptable levels of softeners known as phthalates.

The Committee re-examined the issue on three further occasions. They confirmed their previous assessment on June 15/16/ 1998 and on November 30 1998, after they examined major recent studies on the issue, (including the one done by the Dutch Consensus Group Group which plays down the hazards posed by soft PVC toys).

September 30 1999 the Committee published two opinions which stated that the two leaching tests developed in the Netherlands and in the UK are not suitable for regulatory purposes due to their poor reproducibility and that the use of the phthalate substitutes that were examined (citrates and adipates) cannot be supported.

The committee's findings re-open the possibility that the Commission may now propose an EU-wide ban on phthalates in PVC toys designed to be sucked or chewed by babies. The European Commission also said that EU governments may continue to ban toys containing phthalates. "


sumber: http://archive.greenpeace.org/comms/97/pvctoys/documents/quickfacts.html
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Postby smurf on Fri Aug 27, 2004 12:14 pm

Toxic Toys



Greenpeace has found significant levels of hazardous chemicals in soft PVC plastic (vinyl) toys tested recently. In mid-September, Greenpeace urged parents and consumers to avoid buying toys made of PVC.

PVC uses more additives than any other plastic and softeners are needed to make PVC toys flexible. Of the 63 PVC plastic toys for children under three that were tested by Greenpeace, almost all contained between 10 and 40 per cent by weight of hazardous softening additives. These chemicals, called phthalates, are known to leak from PVC products during use, especially when pressure is applied, as in the case of a small child sucking or chewing on a toy.

“When children suck and chew on soft PVC toys, it is similar to squeezing a sponge. Water comes out of the sponge the same way hazardous softeners come out of the toys,” said Greenpeace Canada chemist Dr. Matthew Bramley.

Independent laboratory studies have shown the phthalate found in the toys to be toxic when ingested by animals. The health effects range from liver and kidney damage to reproductive abnormalities. A recent study also indicates that the most abundant phthalate found in the Greenpeace tests shows a capacity to weakly mimic the hormone estrogen.

Analyses conducted last April and July by the governments of Denmark and the Netherlands show that soft PVC toys can leach phthalates above limits set by the Scientific Committee for Food of the European Commission.

Under pressure, the Italian company Chicco voluntarily withdrew three teething rings from the market in Denmark, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Greece and Argentina. In addition, several retailers have removed soft PVC toys from the shelves in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands.

Greenpeace has sent letters to major Canadian toy retailers asking them to remove the toys from their shelves. Health Canada reacted to the findings by initiating its own tests on PVC toys on sale in Canada to verify the levels of phthalates used to soften the plastic and to determine the exact amounts of hazardous chemicals ingested by young children when they suck or chew on toys made from PVC.
sumber: NATURAL LIFE MAGAZINE #58[/b]
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Postby smurf on Fri Aug 27, 2004 12:19 pm

Avoiding Toxic Toys

Most parents don't even know it, but they may be letting their children play with toxic toys. These are toys that contain PVC with toxic additives, toxic paints and finishes, etc.

Plastic Toys

PVC plastics (also called vinyl) often contain additives, such as lead, phthalates, and cadmium which can leech out of the toy. Lead and cadmium can cause brain damage (especially in children). Phthalates can cause cancer. Many products in your home, including toys for babies and children, have toxic chemical levels that exceed the safe levels established by the U.S. government. If your child chews on the toy (as most babies and children do with everything even if it's not meant to be chewed on) your child may be ingesting these toxic substances.

Some studies have shown no negative affect on the health of children from using and mouthing such toys, and the U.S. government continues to allow the use of PVC in toys based on these studies (even though some other governments have banned PVC in both toys and food containers because of the potential dangers). Are these materials really safe? Well, there is still a lot of debate about it. Some studies with rats have shown that there are indeed health risks, but other studies still point to the lack of health risks. Until the issue is resolved, it's probably better to be safe than sorry and simply avoid toys with PVC as much as possible.

You can first avoid PVC completely by choosing toys that are not made out of plastic. Wood toys are making a big comeback as well as many alternative materials. If you choose to buy plastic, avoid these toxic chemicals by purchasing your children's toys from manufactures that don't use any PVC in their products. While this does not guarantee that alternative plastic materials won't have their own health risks, it will reduce the chance of known potential health risks.

(Please note: All efforts were made to contact the companies listed below to obtain accurate information. Unless verification with the company is specified, the following information has been based on secondary sources. Some secondary sources are out of date and contain incorrect information, even those completed just one year ago, so the accuracy of information obtained from secondary sources cannot be verified.)

Manufacturers that don't use PVC in any of their products:

Brio (verified with the company on Sept. 2, 2003)
Early Start
Gerber (verified with the company on Sept. 3, 2003)
Lego (verified with the company on Sept. 3, 2003)
Primetime Playthings
Sassy (except for vinyl books: Who Loves Baby Photo Book", "Splish Splash Bathtime Book", "Hello Me Hello Bee Book", "Baby’s Peek A Boo Book", and ABC Books; verified with the company on Sept. 3, 2003)
Tiny Love
Safety 1st (verified with the company on Sept. 9, 2003; completely phased out in 1999)
Manufacturers that will not use PVC in toys for children under 3 years of age:

Chicco (some sources indicate that they also do not use PVC in any of their products)
Manufacturers that will not use PVC in toys for children under 18 months of age:

Battat (verified with the company on Sept. 8, 2003)
Some manufacturers have eliminated the use of phthalates but some continue to use PVC. The products these manufacturers produce may be a bit safer than those produced with phthalates but still aren't the best choice because the PVC usually contains other harmful additives.

Manufacturers that will not use phthalates in toys for children under 3 years of age:

Mattel / Fisher Price / Tyco / American Girl (unable to verify with company; operators were unwilling to discuss materials used in toys because they consider it proprietary information, but assured me that all materials are federally approved)
Shelcore
Little Tikes (verified with the company on Sept. 4, 2003; have switched back and forth between continued use of PVC and phthalates and planning to phase out PVC and phthalates; they currently use PVC in many of their toys and phthalates in toys for kids over 3 years old)
Some manufacturers have only eliminated phthalates in mouth toys, but as any parent knows, to a baby or toddler everything is a mouth toy, so this solution is a feeble attempt to make toys safer.

Manufacturers that will not use phthalates in mouth toys (e.g. teethers) only:

Discovery Toys
Disney
Evenflo
First Years
Hasbro / Playskool
Galoob
Kids II
Lamaze Infant Development (verified with the company on Sept. 5, 2003; PVC toys, some with phthalates, include Flip Flop Activity Blocks, My First Fishbowl, Nesting Present, Look and Love Photo Album, Cribside Graphic Panels, Snack and Play Stroller toy, and the four sea creatures in the Squeeze and Squirt.)
Wood Toys

Wood toys can be wonderful, but there are some things to look out for. Wood toys should not have any toxic paints of finishes. They should be made of solid wood, not plywood, particle board, etc. which contain toxic adhesives. The wood should not be pressure treated or contain any insecticides either. Organic wood is best, and sustainably grown wood is even better for the environment.

Cloth Toys, Stuffed Animals, and Fibers

Cloth toys can also be wonderful, but they too have some things you should look out for. To reduce the chances of your child ingesting toxic chemicals stick to natural fibers such as cotton, hemp, and wool. They should be made of organic cloth since conventional fibers can contain pesticides. If you don't know if the cloth is organic or are unable to buy organic cloth toys, make sure you wash the toys thoroughly before letting your child play with them. Also, don't forget to ensure that they are colored with non-toxic dyes. To kill any microbes that may accumulate on cloth toys, put them in the dryer on high heat for

References: http://www.greenpeaceusa.org/features/r ... rd2000.htm, http://www.motherjones.com/sideshow/pvc.html, http://www.checnet.org/healthehouse/edu ... ain_ID=138, http://www.nypirg.org/consumer/2002/appendix5.pdf,
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Postby Tirana_m on Fri Aug 27, 2004 2:32 pm

Assalamualaikum,

Ha.. tu dia...puas hati...panjang lebar penerangan tentang toxic toys :D . Anyway TQ smurf for the articles. Banyak manfaatnya..InsyaAllah
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Postby rose on Sat Aug 28, 2004 12:35 am

Assalamualaikum wbr...

Smurf...
thanks for the info... i think some of manufacturers are quite famous here and they dont use phthalates... that's great i think... so i will use your posts with the links for my friends' awareness... thanks...

smurf,
nie maybe sebagai cadangan lah kan... untuk anak nko tu... ishhh susah gak kalau nak campur dalam susu... hhmmm maybe you can find out what kind of toys she likes most... contoh yang simple... bubbles... sebab senang... so, try to attract her about bubbles... tell her that she has to drink the liquid, and then she will get the bubbles... encourage dia minum ubat tu lah smurf... dia kena belajar sebab kalau sakit teruk camna??? masa nak bagi bubbles tu.. lepas dia minum aja, tiup bubble kat depan dia... mintak dia pecahkan bubble yang nko tangkap tu... buat ler beberapa kali... pastu simpan sampai masa dia makan ubat plak... nanti letih nko nak carik reward apa untuk dia lain kali :) kesian gak aku dengar batuk anak nko tu... yelah kita kat sini pung batuk gak... kalau boleh nak minum selalu ubat tu, tapi nanti terlebih dose, hehehe...

oklah... have a nice weekend then smurf, and good luck... wasalam...
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Postby Tirana_m on Thu Sep 02, 2004 7:45 am

Assalamualaikum,

Smurf, kak tirana pastekan beberapa articles... untuk pengetahuan kita bersama...

"MY CHILD IS COUGHING A LOT: WHAT COULD IT BE?"

This is the time of the year when coughing seems to be a common symptom in children. Confusingly, a cough could be caused by many different forms of illness. Remember, a cough is usually a reflex to clear the airways of irritating material. Our air passages start with our nose, pass down the throat (trachea), into the major airways (bronchi), through the smaller airways (bronchioles), and finally into the microscopic air sacs (alveoli). Oxygen from the air sacs is then transferred into the blood stream. But, enough of anatomy and physiology! It is sufficient to say that any irritation or infection along this pathway can cause a cough!

Here are just a few of the many causes of cough:
• Sinus drainage/infections. Drainage in the back of the throat, from the sinuses, can cause a "post—nasal drip"; which may lead to a cough.
• Lung/airway infections——such as bronchitis and pneumonia.
• Any non—infectious irritations of the airway——such as inhalation of chemicals, allergens, or irritating substances (cigarette smoke, gasoline, etc.).
• Viral colds——produces mucus secretions in the nose, throat, and upper airways.
• Allergy——leads to mucus production and irritation of sane parts of the airways.
• Asthma/wheezing——some children will have occasional airway spasm due to any number of factors (allergy, weather change, and viral infections seem to head the list). This narrowing of the air sacs causes a cough of varying degree.

Remember:
• Cough is a protective reflex, and serves a useful purpose. Parents may not be overly enthusiastic about coughing spells that keep their child awake at night, even if it is "protective"! But it might help parents deal with it a little bit easier knowing that the cough may benefit your child.
• The symptom of cough can be caused by numerous ailments. It is difficult for pediatricians to recommend what medication or measures will truly help the child without checking the child over to determine the exact cause.

Sumber: KidsGrowth.com
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Postby Tirana_m on Thu Sep 02, 2004 7:47 am

Parents' Eyes and Ears are Good Monitors of Cough

A child’s cough is one of the most disturbing sounds a parent can hear. Coughing tires the child, worries the parents, and robs the entire family of sleep. Fortunately, most diseases that cause a youngster to cough are more bothersome than serious.

What causes a cough in the first place? The lining of the respiratory tract, from the nose to the lungs, continually traps dust, viruses, bacteria and other pollutants on a thin coat of mucus (children normally make about a pint a day). Tiny hairlike structures called cilia act like little brooms to keep this mucus and its foreign contents flowing out of the respiratory tract. When children get an infection, the cilia become disabled disrupting this effective cleaning system. Coughing takes over for the inactivated cilia as a protective mechanism to help keep the airway clean. In addition, the cells of the respiratory tract compensate by producing more mucus to defend themselves. Since it takes a while for the cilia to heal, a child can cough for weeks after an infection is over.

Finding the cause of a child's cough is sometimes not easy. After all, most children are unable to describe their symptoms, their physical examination is usually normal and key laboratory tests, such as pulmonary function studies, are hard to do in the pediatric age group. Furthermore, the cough usually temporarily disappears the minute the child enters their physician’s office!

However, several pieces of information can help solve the mystery of the persistent cough. For example, regular exposure to airborne irritants such as cigarette smoke or potential allergens such as house dust mites or furry animals can produce respiratory inflammation. A cough that has its onset in infancy and is worse during feedings suggests a congenital abnormality. Preschoolers attending day care are constantly exposed to a barrage of viruses that cause one cold after another. Frequently the cough of one respiratory tract infection simply blends right into the cough of the next. The result is an otherwise healthy child in day care or preschool who coughs for weeks at a time.

When a yellow or green nasal discharge, headache, sore throat and a foul breath odor are associated with a cough, the cause is most likely due to a sinus infection. A cough that starts shortly after choking on a nut, popcorn or a toy may suggest a foreign object lodged in the respiratory tract. Exercise induced asthma produces a cough that occurs during exercise or exposure to cold. A teenager who suddenly starts coughing without any other symptoms may be smoking, even if the adolescent denies the possibility (upwards of 15 percent of young people ages 12 to 18 in the United States are regular smokers).

Some coughs have a characteristic sound that can help in establishing a diagnosis. A short, dry, wheezing cough is heard in asthma, bronchitis or pneumonia. A wet, productive cough is usually a part of an upper respiratory infection (the ability to "feel" the cough in the chest is usually the result of transmitted breath sounds and is not from mucus in the lungs or pneumonia!). A bizarre honking cough heard down the hallway through closed doors is probably psychological in nature. This form of coughing typically occurs only during the day, may be precipitated by anxiety, and is easily reproduced on command. The cough of pertussis (whooping cough) is characterized by a "whooping" sound, which follows a bout of gasping breaths and vomiting (while pertussis is not a common cause of coughing, it is still being seen because some parents are not getting their children immunized with the DPT vaccine). Croup is a frightening condition whose sound is unforgettable. Typically it starts at night after the child has been asleep for several hours. Suddenly, the youngster begins having trouble breathing and emits a continuous cough that sounds like the bark of a seal.

A loose cough more pronounced when the child is sleeping results from mucus that is dripping steadily into the back of the throat from a cold or sinus infection. In addition, this type of cough is worse first thing in the morning and these youngsters may rid themselves of the mucus by vomiting. The persistent cough produced by bronchitis, pneumonia, and asthma is usually present regardless of position, occurs during the daytime and nighttime, and can be made worse by exercise. Even crying or laughing may set off an attack of severe coughing.

As bad as pneumonia can be for infants, a condition called bronchiolitis is worse. Under the age of a year or so a child airways are quite small. Certain virus infections cause the membranes of the smaller tubes (bronchioles) to swell. Since there is not much room to start with, the infant has a difficult time getting air in and out of the lungs. Babies with this infection will appear sick and need prompt medical attention.

Asthma may be the most common cause of chronic coughing in children. Frequently the youngster has no other symptoms except the cough and when checked by his or her physician the chest sounds clear. The diagnosis is sometimes made only after a trial of anti-asthma medications stops the cough!

Sumber: KidsGrowth.com
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Postby Tirana_m on Thu Sep 02, 2004 7:52 am

Three ways to Calm a Cough

Coughing is one of the most disturbing sounds a parent can hear. It is uncomfortable, tires a child, worries the parents, and robs the entire family of sleep. Yet, a cough is an essential defense mechanism to keep the lungs clear of viruses, bacterial, and other foreign objects.

What causes a child to cough? Under normal conditions, the lining of the respiratory tract, from the nose to the lungs, continuously traps dust, viruses, bacteria, and other pollutants on a thin coat of mucus (children normally make about a pint a day). Tiny hairlike structures called cilia act like little brooms to keep this mucus and its foreign contents flowing out of the respiratory tract. When children get a respiratory tract infection, the cilia become disabled disrupting nature’s cleaning system. Coughing takes over for the inactivated cilia to help keep the airway clean. The cells of the respiratory tract compensate by producing more thick mucus to defend themselves from an invading germ.

A cough can be best handled in three ways. The first is to stop all cigarette smoking in the house. By now, anyone with children who smokes and reads these columns should be trying to quit or at the very least smoking outside! Cigarette smoke is an irritant that not only paralyzes the cilia but causes the respiratory cells to produce more mucus. A second way to make the mucus thinner and soothe irritated respiratory cells is to use water in one form or another. So when our mom told us to drink plenty of water when we were sick, she was right!

A third way is to add water directly to a child’s inflamed respiratory tract by putting more moisture in the air. This can be accomplished by using a cool mist humidifier. These devices spin water into tiny droplets propelling them into the room where they eventually land on the child’s respiratory cells making the mucus less sticky. (The newer ultrasonic humidifiers produce a cool mist of a even smaller particle size that land farther down the respiratory tract.) Another benefit of more moisture in the air is that viruses survive better when the humidity is low. That might help explain why Influenza viruses show up more during the winter months when our air has less humidity.

Some parents wonder why pediatricians usually suggest the cool mist humidifier rather than the old standby - hot steam. Cool mist has more moisture than heated water and is more effective in reducing the swelling of inflamed, congested respiratory membranes. In addition, cool mist is better at thinning out the thick secretions that cause the youngster to cough. Furthermore, heated vaporizers pose a safety hazard with the risk of accidental burns or over warming the child.

If a child is wheezing or has asthma, use of cool mist therapy could make the problem worse. Call the child's physician if the wheezing does not respond to usual treatments. In addition, humidifiers if not cleaned properly can act as incubators for viruses and bacteria present in the air. The following guidelines will help parents get the most benefit from the humidifier:

• Only use water - never add medications to the humidifier. Medicines (such as Vicks vaporub eucalyptus oil, etc.) do not help, only smell up the room, and may foul up a perfectly good humidifier. Unless advised by the child’s doctor, medications in the humidifier are unnecessary.

• Set the vaporizer several feet away from the child but not blowing directly onto a youngster’s face. Even if the humidifier blows away from the child, their clothes may become damp so check them frequently and change them as often as necessary.

• Use it primarily at night or naptime. Turn the humidifier on about ten minutes before putting the child to bed. Running the humidifier when the child is not in the room is unnecessary.

• Working properly, the humidifier should put out an easily visible column of mist. Do not allow the room to become so we that water drips down the walls and windows; this will encourage the growth of molds.

• When filling the humidifier, remove any remaining water and refill with fresh water. When not in use, dry the humidifier before putting it away.

• Clean the humidifier thoroughly after each use. Mold can grow in the unit and throw off spores that can wreak havoc with an allergy prone child. Most units come with cleaning instructions. If the model does not have cleaning directions, use the following guidelines:

(1) remove any remaining water in the reservoir

(2) Add one-half cup of household bleach to one gallon of water in the reservoir

(3) Cover the mist port with a cloth towel

(4) Turn on the humidifier for 30 minutes

(5) Remove Water in the reservoir

(6) Rinse the reservoir throughout with water

(7) Repeat the procedure every third day

Sumber: KidsGrowth.com
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Postby Tirana_m on Fri Sep 24, 2004 9:35 pm

What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

The Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) defines dyslexia as a learning disability in the area of reading.

These organizations point out that the term dyslexia is defined in many different ways. While reading is the primary problem, some definitions of dyslexia also include difficulties with:

* Writing
* Spelling
* Listening
* Speaking
* Math

A person with dyslexia is someone whose problem in reading is not the result of emotional problems, lack of motivation, poor teaching, mental retardation, or vision or hearing deficits. Dyslexia is a persistent, lifelong condition. There's no cure for it, but there are ways to approach learning and be successful.

Although kids with dyslexia have language processing and learning difficulties in common, the symptoms and severity can be quite different. Kids learn some academic skills at a level lower than others their same age and intellectual peers, but they can do other things quite well. They may be talented in the arts, skilled in technology, or adept with spatial relationships. These strengths and talents need to be encouraged and reinforced.


What Should I Look For?

Most kids have problems in school at one time or another. Ask yourself and the teacher if your child has shown these characteristics to a greater degree than normal over a period of time and in different environments, e.g., school, home, child care.

Ages 6-11

* Has difficulty pronouncing words, may reverse or substitute parts of words
* Has difficulty carrying out a sequence of directions
* Doesn't hear fine differences in words; e.g., writes "pin" for "pen"
* Has problems stating thoughts in an organized way
* Confuses the order of letters in words
* Doesn't recognize words previously learned
* Spells a word several different ways; doesn't recognize the correct version
* Has poor reading comprehension


Ages 12-adult


* Has difficulty remembering what he just read
* Has difficulty concentrating when reading or writing
* Is unable to tell important information from unimportant details
* Spells poorly; misspelling is not phonetic
* Has problems taking notes accurately
* Has difficulty organizing and completing written projects


What if I Suspect My Child Has Dyslexia?

Prepare to talk with your child's teacher about the problems you've observed at home and learn how your child is doing in the classroom. Rest assured: There are many techniques that may help your child succeed, either by gaining new skills or by using bypass strategies.

* Take notes on the types of errors your child makes, how often they occur, and where you've noticed them.
* Keep copies of her work and results from group tests.
* Conference with her teacher to get a sense of how she's doing in comparison with her peers.
* Check to see if the school offers any special instructional programs that might be appropriate for her.
* Request a meeting of your school's student/teacher support team. (These multidisciplinary, general education, prereferral teams have different names in different school districts and states.) Express your concerns to the group and develop a plan of action with a specific time to be evaluated.
* Ask the teacher if she thinks your child might have a learning disability. (Remember that's the term most schools use instead of dyslexia.) If you feel your child's problems are significant and she may need special education services to benefit from the general academic curriculum, you can make a written request for assessment and send it to the school and/or district administrator. You’ll need to be specific about her problems, so the information you gathered earlier will come in handy.


What Can the School Do to Help My Child?

Your child’s teachers and other school professionals will want to identify the specific skills your child already has and those she needs to master in developmental sequence, e.g., hearing differences in sounds, learning letter names, spelling words that don't follow the rules, etc. This will allow you and the teacher to plan the next steps of your child's instructional program by building on what she already knows.

What Can I Do to Help My Child?

* Depending on your child’s age and language skills, speak with her about the difficulties you've observed.
* Ask her how she feels about school and what she feels she needs help with.
* Tell her you know she tries hard, but you and her teachers are going to help her find ways to succeed.
* Work in collaboration with school staff; let your child see you functioning as a team.
* Look into private tutoring through community agencies or privately if you can afford it.
* Encourage her to use her strengths and talents.
* Be patient with her and support her efforts.


Source: Schwab Learning

P/S We will be discussing about learning disability named dyslexia. You've heard the term "dyslexia" and wonder if it applies to your child who's struggling in school. How can you tell if she has this language-based learning disability? You are invited to join the discussion.. give your opinion.. share your knowledge and experience (if you have) in dealing with this special child... InsyaAllah, we may help others to understand what dyslexia is all about.
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Postby rose on Fri Sep 24, 2004 11:45 pm

Assalamualaikum wbr...

eehh nie pung aku cut and paste jugak ler... :) from: http://www.dyslexia-teacher.com


POSSIBLE DYSLEXIA SYMPTOMS IN MORE DETAIL

A discrepancy between the pupil's ability and their actual achievement
If you notice that a child who appears to be average or bright when they are talking to you is struggling to read, spell or cope with math/s, this may be the strongest indicator that they may be dyslexic. It is very common for dyslexic children to be quite able, especially in the areas of creativity (art, drama, drawing, etc) and physical co-ordination (physical education, swimming, sports, model-making, etc.). However, there are differences in the neural links in their brain that makes it hard for them to deal with text (and often with numbers) without extra support. A reading age or grade level of two years below what you would expect from them is a sign of possible dyslexia. Obviously, this could also be caused by other factors such as lengthy absences from school due to illness.

A family history of learning difficulties
Dyslexia is inherited through the genes. It can be made worse by early ear infections which make it harder for a young child to be able to distinguish the difference between similar sounding words. The numbers of boys and girls who are dyslexic are roughly the same.

Difficulties with spelling
Spelling is the activity which causes most difficulty for dyslexic children. The observation of spelling errors in short, simple words is the way in which most dyslexic children first come our attention. Examples of words which cause particular difficulty are: any, many, island, said, they, because, enough, and friend. Other words will sometimes be spelt in the way that you would expect them to be spelt if our spelling system were rational, for example does/dus, please/pleeze, knock/nock, search/serch, journey/jerney, etc.

Dyslexic children also experience difficulties with 'jumbled spellings'. These are spelling attempts in which all the correct letters are present, but are written in the wrong order. Examples include dose/does, freind/friend, siad/said, bule/blue, becuase/because, and wores/worse. 'Jumbled spellings' show that the child is experiencing difficulty with visual memory. Non-dyslexic children and adults often use their visual memory when trying to remember a difficult spelling: they write down two or three possible versions of the word on a spare piece of paper and see which spelling 'looks right'. They are relying on their visual memory to help them, but the visual memory of a dyslexic child may not be adequate for this task. .

Confusion over left and right
A fairly quick way to establish this type of confusion is to ask a child to point to your left foot with his or her right hand. If you try similar instructions - in a non-threatening environment - you will soon be able to see if this causes difficulties or not. (Try it on a colleague - who is not dyslexic - and you can see how a non-dyslexic person is able to sort out the left and right elements quite readily.) You may also notice difficulties with east and west, or in following directions like 'Go to the end of the road and turn left, then right, etc'.

Writing letters or numbers backwards
You will have noticed some children who mix up 'b' and 'd', or even 'p' and the number 9. These letters are the same in their mirror image, and cause regular confusion for a dyslexic person. Some pupils make a point of always writing the letter 'b' as au upper-case or capital 'B', as they find this much easier to remember in terms of the direction it faces.

Difficulties with math/s
One feature of dyslexia is difficulties with sequencing - getting things in the right order. Math/s depends on sequences of numbers - 2. 4. 6. 8. etc. Whilst many people are aware that dyslexic children and students have problems with reading and spelling, they do not know that math/s can also be a real challenge. This is mentioned quite often in Dot's Diary.

Difficulties organizing themselves
Whilst you may quite reasonably think that all children live their lives in a mess, this is particularly so for dyslexic children and students, who may have genuine difficulties with planning and thinking ahead to when a book or pen might be needed next. They can really benefit from help with organizing papers and folders under a simple color-coded system. (See Finding My Own Solutions.)

Difficulty following 2- or 3-step instructions
'Go to Mrs. Brown and ask her if Peter Smith is in school today. Oh, yes, and ask if I can borrow her dictionary' - such an instruction is just too much! It involves both sequencing and memory skills, and you would be very surprised to see a dyslexic child return with the dictionary and information about Peter Smith! Dyslexic children love to take messages as much as any other child, but it has to be a less complicated instruction, e.g. 'Ask Mrs. Brown if I can borrow her stapler'.


Mungkin as parents, we can assess our children based on above criteria... i do wonder, do teacher in school have such assessment to determine whether the child has been suffered from dyslexia??? usually... the impact is not directlyinto the social capacities, but it give stress into emotional as well as self-confident... remember this is not able to be cured... but some compensation might help the child to cope with his/her problem... so... we might wonder, how to start helping the child, rite??? tunggu response yang lain dulu ok... wasalam...
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Postby ilham_taqwa on Mon Sep 27, 2004 1:47 pm

Assalamualaikum........

Ha..... tu dah banyak article mengenai dyslexia.... :)
dari pakar2 semuanya....:)

Rasanya Cikgu kecik ni tak perlu tambah apa-apa lagi kot... :) He..he..

p/s : sekadar menyampuk...
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Postby smurf on Mon Sep 27, 2004 2:29 pm

a'kum

artikel yg bagus ttg dislexia (pasal susah gak nak dapatkan maklumat tttg hal ni)..

ilham... apa salahnya tambah yg mana2 patut :) .. kan guru besar pun bermula dari guru kecik juger...

iklan sikit :

sesiapa yg berminat nak beli buku prosiding pendidikan khas dan pendidikan awal kanak2 2004, smurf boleh tolong belikan.

harganya RM 20 (tak termasuk belanja pos)... duit boleh bayar lepas dah dapat buku tu..

sesiapa yg berminat bolehlah PM nama dan alamat kat smurf...

sekian...iklan utk kali ini..
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Postby ilham_taqwa on Tue Sep 28, 2004 1:37 pm

Waalaikumussalam...

Kak Smurf Wrote :

ilham... apa salahnya tambah yg mana2 patut icon_smile.gif .. kan guru besar pun bermula dari guru kecik juger...



He..he...a'a..betul gak cakap akak tu...
manalah tahu, hari ni sekadar pandangan dari guru kecik...esok2 pandangan jadi guru besar lak... :)

InsyaAllah...Ilham akan tambah sikit2 nanti...

iklan sikit :

sesiapa yg berminat nak beli buku prosiding pendidikan khas dan pendidikan awal kanak2 2004, smurf boleh tolong belikan.


Kak Smurf..
Apa nama tajuk dan publisher nya? bukannya apa, takut2 dah ada..tapi kalau confirm tak der lagi, nanti Ilham pun nak mintak akak tolong belikan...nanti Ilham msg akak.... :)
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Postby azri on Fri Oct 29, 2004 3:28 pm

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UKHUWAH ITU BUKAN TERLETAK PADA PERTEMUAN....
BUKAN PADA MANISNYA UCAPAN DI BIBIR...
TETAPI PADA INGATAN SESEORANG TERHADAP SAUDARANYA DI DALAM DOANYA....
-IMAM AL GHAZALI-
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Postby ananda on Tue Feb 08, 2005 12:49 pm

Assalamualaikum,

Anak-anak saya tidak berminat untuk membaca buku lebih gemar bermain dengan semua barang mainan...kadang2 dorang boleh berbual dengan mainan dorang berjam2. Bagaimana cara terbaik untuk menarik minat dorang supaya minat membaca. Saya dah cuba approach cara lembut tak menjadi gak..keras pun dah tapi tak menjadi jugak...tolong bantu saya...
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Postby Manis74 on Wed Feb 09, 2005 8:50 am

Salamunalaikumwarahmatullah.....i'm new here...i ada 3 org anak lelaki..11thn,9thn n 2 bulan....sebab yg dua tu dah besar..so yg kecik ni mcm memula dpt anak dulu2lah....anyway..very nice to join u all here looking forward for sharing stories n experiences-Manis :gelak:
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Postby Tirana_m on Thu Feb 10, 2005 1:58 pm

Assalamualaikum,

First of all, Kak Tirana ucapkan selamat datang ke BMC buat Ananda dan Manis74. Kak Tirana harap melalui BMC ini, kita dapat belajar sesuatu melalui perbincangan dengan kawan-kawan.

Bagaimana nak buat bila anak tak minat membaca? Masalah ini memang selalu dihadapi oleh ibubapa. Puas disuruh secara lembut, dipaksa secara kasar pun tak jalan juga. Well, Kak Tirana ni bukannya pandai sangat nak bagi petua dan nasihat cuma boleh berkongsi pengalaman.

Pertama sekali, mari kita kaji dan teliti diri kita samada kita sendiri minat membaca atau tidak. Sekiranya kita tidak minat membaca, maka mulai hari ini, ubah sikap kita dari tidak suka membaca kepada suka membaca. Biar anak-anak tengok ayah dan ibu membaca – pendidikan melalui contoh dan teladan. Kadang-kadang anak-anak(lebih2 lagi anak yang telah remaja) reluctant bila ayah atau ibu selalu menyuruh mereka membaca dan lagi-lagi mereka tak suka bila ibu berleter.. sedangkan mereka sendiri tidak nampak ibu atau ayah membaca. Tunjukkan yang kita betul-betul berminat membaca di hadapan anak-anak bukan berpura-pura minat sebab anak-anak secara psikologinya boleh rasa ibubapa berpura-pura.

Jadikan membaca bersama-sama keluarga sebagai rutin harian. Cari masa yang sesuai, di mana semua ahli keluarga duduk dan membaca bersama-sama. Ketika ini hindari perkara-perkara lain yang boleh menarik perhatian anak seperti tutup tv, tutup computer, simpan semua barang mainan dan lain-lain. Bagi anak-anak yang boleh membaca sendiri, sediakan buku yang sesuai dengan tahap umurnya. Bagi anak-anak yang belum boleh membaca, ibu atau ayah yang membaca untuk mereka. Selepas selesai membaca, bincangkan dengan anak-anak tentang buku yang mereka baca. Dari perbincangan ini, kita boleh mengesan samada mereka betul-betul membaca dan memahami apa yang telah dibaca.

Pemilihan buku juga penting. Pilih buku yang sesuai mengikut tahap umur anak-anak. Anak-anak yang masih kecil biasanya lebih gemar buku yang bergambar dan berwarna-warni. Bagi anak-anak yang sudah bersekolah.. pilih buku mengikut minat mereka. Contohnya kalau anak minat kereta, maka berikan mereka buku-buku mengenai kereta. Kalau anak minat sains, maka berikan buku-buku mengenai sains dan sebagainya.

Selalu bawa anak ke kedai buku. Bantu mereka memilih buku yang sesuai dengan tahap umur mereka. Anak-anak biasanya akan lebih seronok sekiranya ibubapa memberi kelonggaran terhadap pemilihan buku, menggunakan duit mereka sendiri dan mereka sendiri yang pergi membayar harga buku di kaunter, seolah-olah buku itu betul-betul milik mereka, menjadikan mereka lebih berminat untuk membaca. Sekiranya ada kelapangan, boleh juga bawa mereka ke perpustakaan awam.

Kalau anak-anak minat computer, bantu mereka melayari internat untuk mencari kelab membaca di kalangan kanak-kanak. Dengan menjadikan mereka ahli kelab tersebut, sekurang-kurangnya mereka boleh bertukar-tukar fikiran di kalangan rakan-rakan sebaya.Walaubagaimanapun, ibubapa harus berwaspada bila anak-anak melayari internet.

Apa yang penting sekali ialah penglibatan ibubapa dalam memberi galakan dan rangsangan secara positif dan berterusan. Jangan mudah putus asa bila sekali disuruh, anak tak bergerak dan bersabar kerana pasti anak-anak kita akan membuat berbagai-bagai kerenah apabila diajak membaca, perkara yang paling tak diminati sebelum ini.

Itu di antara tip yang boleh kak Tirana cadangkan. Sebenarnya menanam minat membaca ini, perlu dimulakan ketika anak-anak masih kecil, lebih mudah. Mulakan sebaik sahaja anak-anak dilahirkan ke dunia. Dedahkan anak-anak kepada buku sejak awal-awal lagi. Membaca untuk mereka ketika mereka masih kecil bukan sahaja merangsang mereka untuk minat membaca tetapi merangsang perkembangan bahasa. Wallahualam.
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Postby ananda on Mon Feb 14, 2005 9:49 am

Terima kasih Kak Tirana for your idea. InsyaAllah, I can try to do it. After that, I hope my child can follow with my new hobby. Saya juga berdoa mereka akan menjadi anak-anak yang pintar dan dapat menyenangi hati saya sebagai seorang ibu.
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Postby smurf on Mon Feb 14, 2005 11:40 am

a'kum

thanks kak tirana atas tips yg diberi.. mmg boleh praktikkan kat anak dan parent skali...

sebelum tu..smurf nak ucap slamat datang pada ananda dan manis.. rajin2 la masuk sini dan kongsi pengalaman kita yer !! :)
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Postby Tirana_m on Mon Feb 21, 2005 3:07 pm

Assalamualaikum..

Ni kak tirana pastekan satu article yang rasa2 menarik jugak...

Anger/Abuse Cycle:
By Ron Huxley, LMFT

http://www.parentingtoolbox.com


The anger/abuse cycle is a common pattern of interaction between
family members. Although it is traditionally used to describe
domestic violence it can take place in everyday parenting routines,
through verbal and emotional abuse. For example, a parent may explode
in frustration at his child for his irresponsible behavior. Words and
actions are said by the parent that are hurtful. And even when the
parent knows he is verbally abusing his son, he may be unable to stop
himself or find himself caught back up in anger after he promised
himself, and his son, that he would not vent at him in frustration.
Understanding the anger/abuse cycle is the first step toward breaking
the cycle.

The anger/abuse cycle has three main phases: The problem, tension
building, and honeymoon phase. The following ten steps break these
phases into more detail:

1. Problems occur in life and tension begins to develop. What
stressors are at work in your life, job, or family? How do you
perceive the actions of others towards you? Are those perceptions
accurate or unrealistic?

2. Opportunity to ESCAPE or ESCALATE!

3. If escalating, tension builds/ineffective coping strategies start.

4. Ineffective coping strategies fail/Tension continues to build.

5. Trigger thoughts set off anger and violence.

6. Explosion: Destructive release of tension.

7. Feelings of guilt and remorse over angry words/actions. Promises
are made to "never do it again."

8. Honeymoon Period. Low tension, happy moods, and false hope.

9. Denial of anger problem.

10. Problems and stressors reoccur or new one's develop. The cycle
continues.....

The first phase brings problems in the life of the parent or in the
relationship between parent and child. Problems are a normal part of
life but if they add up too high or occur too frequently, they can
lead to expressions of anger. The expression can be constructive if
the parent has coping mechanisms that allow him to cope with the
problem by finding a solution to it. This is the escape choice listed
in item 2 above. If the parent is unable to cope then he is left with
the choice of escalating or moving into the tension building phase.
Ineffective coping mechanisms may increase feelings of frustration
and helplessness if parents feel they are "failures" because their
coping mechanisms did not work. This and other trigger thoughts
become the spark that sets off an explosion or release of tension.
This would include items 3 through 6 listed above. Items 7 and 8
occur after the tension has been released. This is characterized by
guilt, remorse, and false promises. This is the third or honeymoon
phase. It is called the honeymoon phase because parent and child
experience low tension, happy moods, and false hope that the
anger/abuse is gone. All that has really happened is that the tension
has been released and the feelings of frustration over the parents
problems and their inability to cope with it are no longer present.
Unfortunately, this denial of an anger management problem and the
inevitable reoccurrence of more problems causes the anger/abuse cycle
to start all over again.

The obvious means of breaking this cycle is to find more effective
coping mechanisms. This does two things for the parent. The first is
that it relieves the parent from personalizing their failure. This
means that the parent reframes themselves as needing new tools to
find a solution to their parenting problem rather than as being
failures for not finding the solution. In other words, it is the tool
that is ineffective not the parent. At this point, the parent needs
to find the right tool for the job. The second benefit is that it
empowers the parent to take responsibility for changing the
parent/child relationship. The parent enjoys the feeling of being in
control of their thoughts and actions which affects the child's
thoughts and actions. This is the opposite direction taken in item 5
and 6 above where blame and shame typically occur. Instead of blaming
the other person, as wrong as he might be, the parent can take
responsibility for their part in the problem, or at least their
reaction to it, which breaks the cycle of anger and abuse.

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Postby Tirana_m on Fri Feb 25, 2005 10:09 am

Masalah emosi 23 peratus kanak-kanak terlibat

Oleh: ROSMAH DAIN

MUNGKIN agak sukar untuk mempercayai bahawa kanak-kanak juga boleh mengalami masalah kesihatan mental.

Kenyataan ini mungkin mengelirukan kerana ramai yang beranggapan hanya orang dewasa sahaja yang mengalami masalah berkenaan.

Sebenarnya, anak-anak anda boleh mengalami masalah emosi pada tahap usia yang masih mentah, seawalnya pada tahap usia empat atau tujuh tahun.

Menurut Perunding Psikologi Klinikal, Dr. Teoh Hsien-Jin, masalah kesihatan mental adalah keadaan di mana emosi berkait dengan tingkah laku bermasalah.

``Hasil kajian oleh Kementerian Kesihatan mendapati, satu daripada lima atau 23 peratus kanak-kanak di negara ini mengalami masalah emosi.

``Ini kerana kanak-kanak semakin hilang perkembangan kasih sayang dengan ibu bapa akibat tekanan hidup yang memberatkan ibu bapa lebih memberi perhatian terhadap kerjaya di luar,'' katanya.

Mengulas lanjut Hsien-Jin berkata, malangnya sukar untuk ibu bapa mengesan masalah kesihatan ini memandangkan kebanyakan masyarakat tidak dapat menyedari perubahan yang berlaku terhadap kanak-kanak sehingga keadaan mereka menjadi bertambah teruk.

Terdapat beberapa perubahan yang berlaku kepada kanak-kanak khususnya yang melibatkan tingkah laku membabitkan disiplin dan juga emosi, kesedihan dan kemurungan.

``Mereka rasa sedih tetapi tidak dapat menyatakan kepada masyarakat. Apa yang berlaku, mereka hanya mampu menangis.

``Di sini letaknya peranan ibu bapa untuk mengajar mereka cara menguruskan perasaan dan kemarahan agar perkara seperti ini tidak berlarutan,'' katanya.

Sekiranya tindakan tidak diambil, kanak-kanak ini bakal membesar dengan kesihatan mental yang akan menjejaskan cara kanak-kanak itu bertindak dan berfikir.

``Mereka akan menjadi kanak-kanak yang bermasalah termasuk gagal dalam akademik dan terbabit dengan gejala sosial lain. Sehinggakan apabila baru berusia tujuh tahun dan masuk sekolah mereka boleh mencetuskan permasalahan di peringkat sekolah,'' katanya.

Hsien-Jin berkata, pada tahun 1970-an, hasil kajian yang telah diperkembangkan kira-kira 15 tahun lalu mendapati, pada tahun-tahun berkenaan, untuk membendung masalah tingkah laku di kalangan remaja khususnya di Amerika Syarikat adalah menerusi seminar dan pendidikan yang diadakan kepada ibu bapa.

Hanya pada 1980-an para pengkaji sosial berpendapat, kanak-kanak perlu diberikan bimbingan kerana mereka yang memerlukan input perlu dipulihkan daripada masalah dalaman menerusi kelengkapan psikologi dan sebagainya.

Dalam pada itu beliau berkata, selain kehilangan `kasih sayang' daripada ibu bapa, kanak-kanak juga terdedah kepada faktor persekitaran seperti tekanan ujian dan peperiksaan, tekanan kawan-kawan sekolah, disiplin, tekanan untuk berjaya dalam peperiksaan, tekanan kerja dan bebanan ulang kaji pelajaran yang melampau dan sebagainya.

Selain itu, faktor disiplin dan tingkah laku ibu dan bapa juga boleh mempengaruhi psikologi anak-anak mereka.

``Akibat terlalu didedahkan dengan internet dan televisyen, kanak-kanak hari ini hanya tahu terperap di rumah dan tidak pandai bergaul dengan rakan-rakan.

``Dari segi psikologi, ini merupakan tidak baik dan mereka pasti tidak mempunyai kemampuan untuk mengawal keadaan yang mendatang,'' katanya.

Adalah dianggarkan kanak-kanak yang berada di kawasan pedalaman mengalami peningkatan masalah kesihatan mental tiga hingga empat peratus berbanding kanak-kanak di bandar.

Ini kerana kanak-kanak di bandar lebih terdedah dengan semua skala kemahiran penggunaan kesihatan mental seperti guru-guru kaunseling, kedai buku, perpustakaan dan sebagainya.

Kanak-kanak di kawasan pedalaman pula mengalami keadaan ditinggalkan ibu bapa yang berhijrah ke bandar-bandar besar untuk mencari sumber pekerjaan dan meninggalkan anak-anak ini bersendirian atau bersama ahli keluarga terdekat.

Justeru, menurut Hsien-Jin yang mengetuai sepasukan pakar psikologi profesional, semua perkara berkaitan akan didedahkan pada kempen One By One yang dianjurkan oleh Amway, menerusi bengkel-bengkel psikologi dan seminar-seminar keibubapaan yang diadakan di sepanjang tahun ini.

http://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/content.asp?y=2005&dt=0225&pub=Utusan_Malaysia&sec=Keluarga&pg=ke_01.htm
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Postby smurf on Mon Feb 28, 2005 10:51 am

a'kum

artikel yg kak paste tu patut boleh jadi panduan pada kita dlm mengembang dan menyemarakkan emosi anak2... kalau kita perasan anak2 walaupun kecil cukup mahir menangkap emosi mak dan ayahnya... oleh itu jangan gaduh depan anak anda... dia tahu, dan wajahnya akan nampak keliru ..(ceh cam ada pengalaman jer)...

smurf..sekadar beringat dan berpesan2... :D
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Postby Tirana_m on Tue Mar 01, 2005 12:00 pm

Assalamualaikum..

Smurf, kak tirana minta maaf... hanya sempat copy and paste je... tak sempat nak tulis something... Memang banyak rasanya yang nak dikongsi bersama tapi tu la.. masa terlalu suntuk.. nak harapkan awal pagi sebelum menjelang subuh je.. Itupun kalau terjaga... kadang2 letih sangat.. terjaga hanya bila azan subuh dah berkumandang.. Anyway, kak tirana harap articles yang kak tirana paste di sini sedikit sebanyak dapat membantu kita dalam mendidik anak2 kita sebaik mungkin. InsyaAllah.. yang baik jadikan ikutan, yang tak baik kita tinggalkan...
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Postby Tirana_m on Tue Mar 01, 2005 12:06 pm

Learn By Playing

Playtime: An Instructive Experience for Parent and Baby

By Carol Harding


Play is a child's "work" because it accomplishes so many developmental tasks. When children play they learn about themselves and the world around them - how to relate to others and how to communicate.

A baby's playtime is equally important for parents. Playtime allows a parent and baby to share glee, and draws a parent into a baby's magical world. Tickle-tickle, peek-a-boo, and those made up interactive games are not only fun, but also bond baby and parent. The smiles and giggles that emerge make the simplest activities rewarding.

Parents appear to be genetically "wired up" to enjoy being with babies. First movements, burps, and yawns provide parents with lifelong memories. A baby's first sounds teach parents to talk in a special language (called "motherese") that helps develop language skills. It is during playtime that parents and babies come to know each other and learn to communicate.

Kicking, reaching, touching, gumming, wiggling, and babbling are all ways that infants and toddlers experiment with body sensations and motor movements. Swiss Professor Jean Piaget watched his own children and others engage in this kind of "sensorimotor" play as he formulated his theory of how humans develop knowledge. Babies' play, he believed, was the foundation for all later learning. To him, babies were like small scientists who experiment with their bodies and the world around them as they invent knowledge.

Although healthy babies tend to play whenever and wherever they can, there are some ways that parents can help turn ordinary moments into fun learning opportunities.

• Create a playful environment. Babies don't need toys as much as they need time and a child-safe space to discover themselves and their surroundings.


• Let play happen. Don't over plan for play or structure too many activities for a baby or toddler. Quiet time and shared interactions that follow from baby's natural body movements and actions are the best ways to help a baby learn through play.


• Both interactive play and individual playtime are important ways a baby learns. Diaper changing games and those invented together during bath time and mealtime are wonderful ways to interact and help your baby learn about the routines of life.


• Support a baby's playtime. Talk with children about their play, be sure they have time for their own inventions and fantasies, and appreciate playtime in your own life.


• Learn about play.




http://parenthood.com/articles.html?article_id=8179
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Postby Tirana_m on Tue Mar 15, 2005 7:40 am

Kemahiran keibubapaan panduan didik cahaya mata

Oleh Nazilah Mohamad

AIMAN, 3, mula melakukan pelbagai perkara yang menggugat kesabaran ibu bapanya sebaik kelahiran adiknya.
Jika dulu, ibu menegur atau memarahinya hanya dengan perkataan, nasihat dan belaian. Kini, ada kalanya teguran
secara fizikal mula diterimanya. Pada mata ibu bapa perubahan itu tidak menggambarkan berkurangnya
kasih sayang. Namun, di hati Aiman yang masih kecil, tetap memberi kesan yang tidak mudah dilupakan.

Apa yang diterima Aiman hari ini dan mungkin beberapa tahun berikutnya boleh memberi kesan besar, tanpa disedari oleh ibu bapanya. Contohnya, seorang murid saya berumur lapan tahun diketuk jarinya dengan pen kerana tidak menyiapkan kerja sekolah, berkata: “Cikgu, di rumah, ayah saya pukul dengan tali pinggang.” Tentulah saya tidak akan menggunakan tali pinggang untuk membolehkannya membuat kerja. Namun, sebagai guru, saya mesti mencari cara terbaik untuk mengatasi masalah ini. Pada masa sama membantunya berdisiplin bukan melalui kekerasan.
Nabi Muhammad saw mendidik seseorang pada zamannya dengan banyak mengguna dan mengutamakan pendekatan lemah lembut dan penuh dengan kasih-sayang.
Antara langkah atau tahap mengajar, sebelum memukul adalah:
·  Beritahu dan sebutkan secara terus terang perkara yang dibuat itu salah.
·  Tunjukkan cara yang betul.
·  Memujuk dengan cara lemah lembut dan berhikmah atau kreatif.
·  Menggunakan isyarat.
·  Mencela keburukan perangai (bukan kekurangan diri untuk tujuan menghina dirinya).
·  Memulau atau tidak mempedulikannya dalam jangka waktu tertentu.
Pilihan terakhir adalah memukul atau merotan. Tindakan ini diambil selepas kaedah di atas tidak berkesan.
Menghukum dengan memukul atau merotan mesti menggunakan kaedah atau cara pukul yang diizinkan dalam Islam. Antara kaedah memukul yang diizinkan oleh Islam adalah:
·  Memukul atau merotan hanya dibenarkan kepada anak yang berumur 10 tahun ke atas. Sabda Rasulullah bermaksud: “Suruhlah anak-anak kamu mendirikan solat ketika mereka berumur tujuh tahun dan pukullah jika mereka enggan apabila berumur 10 tahun.”
Ada tempat yang haram dipukul, umpamanya muka dan pula bahagian yang sensitif dan boleh mencederakan seseorang.
·  Guru atau ibu bapa membetulkan niat memukul semata-mata untuk mendidik dan membetulkan keadaan atau sifat tercela, bukan untuk mendera atau melepaskan perasaan geram dan marah.
·  Jika dalam keadaan marah dan panas, ambil langkah untuk meredakan perasaan marah dulu, dengan mengubah posisi diri. Contohnya, bagi yang sedang berdiri hendaklah duduk dulu atau yang sedang duduk perlu berdiri atau baring. Atau keluar dari bilik atau bilik darjah sebentar.
Ambil wuduk, solat sunat, kemudian baru pukul dengan membaca doa dan selawat (untuk kesejahteraan anak) dan memukul dengan nama Allah.
Pakar psikiatri dari Hospital Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Dr Khairi Che Mat dalam kajian fisiologi rangsangan saraf ke otak menunjukkan bahawa keputusan dan tindakan ketika marah adalah tidak rasional. Selalunya adalah sembrono dan lebih memudaratkan perasaan dan mental anak-anak.
·  Jangan sekali-kali meninggalkan konsep ‘mendidik’. Pesan Rasulullah: “Hendaklah kamu mengajarkan mereka dan jangan berkeras. Sesungguhnya orang yang mengajar itu lebih baik daripada orang yang berkeras.”
Dr Khairi juga menasihatkan agar ibu bapa/guru supaya memberikan maklum balas kepada setiap perbuatan anak sama ada betul atau salah.
Jika perbuatan mereka betul, berikan dia ‘pengukuhan positif’ dalam bentuk pujian atau ganjaran. Jika salah, berikan ‘pengukuhan negatif’, seperti teguran atau hukuman.
Jangan sampai, anak kita kata, ‘apa yang saya buat selama ini, semuanya salah’. Sebelum ini kita tidak pernah iktiraf atau memberi perakuan terhadap perbuatannya yang betul. Sebaliknya, kita hanya menegurnya jika perbuatannya salah. Jika keadaan ini (hanya menegur ketika salah laku) berterusan, anak-anak akan suka membuat perbuatan salah.
Merotan walaupun cara terakhir dalam mendisiplinkan pelajar, kesan negatifnya pasti ada. Hampir semua ibu bapa akan malu, tercabar, geram atau marah apabila anak dihukum dan diperkatakan di hadapan orang lain. Ibu bapa, yang paling hampir dengan anak. Oleh itu, kitalah orang pertama yang perlu berasa bersalah.
Bagaimanapun, tanggungjawab mencorak masa depan anak memang tidak terletak di tangan ibu bapa semata-mata. Pengaruh luar sama ada positif atau negatif tetap memainkan peranan besar. Ada antaranya tidak dapat ditangani, lalu memberi kesan buruk berpanjangan dalam kehidupan. Biar apapun alasannya, orang dewasa yang sebenarnya lebih banyak menentukan sama ada anak itu hanya perlu dibelai atau mesti dipukul bagi memenuhi tanggungjawab atau mendisiplinkannya.
Jika diberi pilihan, pasti tiada ibu bapa normal, ingin memukul anaknya, apatah lagi membenarkan orang lain melakukannya.
Faktor ‘kecerdikan emosi’ ibu bapa dan pendidik perlu diasah selalu:
·  Fitrah manusia berasa perlu dilindungi dan dikasihi untuk ketenangan akal fikiran dan jiwa. Demikian juga anak-anak, mereka memerlukan keprihatinan orang dewasa dalam setiap kegiatan kehidupan. Oleh itu, ibu bapa atau guru perlu mengemas kini pengetahuan dalam mendidik dan memanfaatkan bidang ilmu terkini dalam pendidikan anak.
·  Anak-anak perlukan peribadi contoh atau ‘role model’ untuk diikuti. Ibu bapa adalah peribadi terhampir dengan mereka, yang boleh menampakkan usaha, kesusahan dan pencapaian kepada anak.
Pada masa sama datangkan padanya model terunggul untuk diikuti iaitu Rasulullah. Sampaikan kisah kehidupan Baginda yang telah diterima Timur dan Barat sebagai pemimpin, suami, bapa dan datuk terbaik.
Bagindalah yang membentuk dan membelai cucunya, Hassan dan Hussin hingga terpahat menjadi teladan, sesuai dengan sabda Baginda bermaksud: “Hendaklah engkau berlaku lemah-lembut dan jauhkanlah daripada berkasar dan berkeras (perkataan dan perbuatan).”
·  Menghormati keperluan, kehendak dan perasaan anak adalah satu tanggungjawab. Namun, setiap kita mesti tahu membezakan antara keperluan dengan kehendak. Keperluan mesti dipenuhi, namun kehendak tiada batasnya kerana ‘kehendak’ lebih berasaskan kepada nafsu. Kehendak dan kerenah perlu diubah suai supaya boleh menjadi bimbingan.
·  Ibu bapa hendaklah menerima anak-anak seadanya tanpa syarat, dengan segala kebaikan dan keburukannya, kebolehan dan kekurangannya. Ibu bapa juga mesti belajar menerima dan mengiktiraf perasaan dan pandangan anak walaupun ia bercanggah dengan pandangan mereka.
Jangan sekali terlalai untuk memberi pujian dan menghargai perlakuan baik anak kerana itu akan menjadi insentif nombor satu dan ingatan bermakna, meskipun tanpa hadiah yang dinilai dengan wang ringgit.
·  Pasti ada kalanya anak melakukan kesilapan. Ambillah kesilapan sebagai pengajaran dan permulaan menuju kejayaan. Sentiasa ingatkan diri bahawa Islam tidak menggalakkan kekerasan.
Dalam mendidik atau menasihati anak, ibu bapa disuruh menggunakan cara yang lembut dan ringan terlebih dulu dan beransur-ansur bertukar kepada yang lebih berat sekiranya tiada perubahan.
Perlu diingat bahawa ibu bapa adalah orang yang paling tahan ujian, sabar dan bertawakal kepada Allah ketika mendidik, apatah apabila mengalami kegagalan dalam membentuk anak yang diharap-harapkan.
·  Memahami perkembangan emosi anak.
Anak-anak menunjukkan pelbagai ragam yang sebahagiannya menggugat kesabaran. Emosi negatif anak mesti ditangani dan dibelai dengan ilmu. Usaha berterusan perlu untuk menjauhkan mereka daripada terus terbawa-bawa tingkah laku demikian hingga besar dan mempengaruhi sikap mereka.
Kepincangan dalam perkembangan emosi boleh menjejaskan perkembangan kanak-kanak secara keseluruhan, terutama dari segi mental.
Apabila mental mereka terjejas, punahlah harapan ibu bapa untuk menatang anak cergas yang berjaya.

Sumber: Wadah Wanita Islam
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Postby Tirana_m on Tue Mar 15, 2005 7:51 am

Kaedah Motivasi Anak

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Komunikasi dalam keluarga merupakan salah satu faktor untuk boleh mewujudkan keluarga yang ceria, bahagia dan harmoni. Dengan wujudkan komunikasi ynag berkesan, anak-anak akan dapat dimotivasikan dari semasa ke semasa agar mereka menjadi insan yang bersemangat, progresif, prokatif dan berfikiran positif. Untuk memotivasikan anak-anak, ibu bapa perlulah menggunakan kaedah komunikasi ynag berkesan agar matlamat dan harapan kita untuk mewujudkan insan yang berguna dan berakhlak akan tercapai. Oleh itu kaedah komunikasi untuk meningkatkan motivasi di kalangan anak-anak adalah seperti berikut:

1. Penerangan yang jelas. Penyelelidikan menunjukkan kebanyakan kanak-kanak dan remaja tidak cemerlang dalam kerja rumah dan tugasan kerana mereka tidak tahu apa yang patut mereka lakukan. Ibu bapa sepatutnya perlu menjelaskan perkara berikut:

a. Kenapa tugasan yang diberikan itu penting?
b. Apa kaitan sesuatu tugasan dengan kehidupan?
c. Memastikan pengetahuan asas mereka mantap.
d. Beritahu bagaimana hasil kerja mereka akan dinilai.
e. Jelaskan kepada mereka apa yang mereka akan perolehi dan kecapi hasil sesuatu tugasan atau kerja.

2. Ganjaran. Anak yang tidak mempunyai motivasi dalaman yang kuat boleh dimotivasikan secara luaran dengan menyediakan pelbagai bentuk ganjaran. Lihat apa kebaikan dan kelebihan anak dan suburkannya, mereka pasti mengulangi kebaikan ini di lain masa. Pelbagai bentuk ganjaran boleh diberikan seperti hadiah, puji-pujian, pelepasan daripada tugas harian dan sebagainya. Ganjaran bukan sahaja diberikan terhadap pencapaian yang diperoleh tetapi juga terhadap usaha ynag diberikan. Berikan insentif agar anak berusaha untuk menguasai pengetahuan dan maklumat bukan sekadar bersaing antara satu sama lain. Ganjaran luar yang berkesan ialah yang mampu menjana motivasi dalaman anak.

3. Tetap dan Mantapkan Matlamat. Setiap anak mestilah disuruh menetapkan matlamat untuk pendidikan dan masa depan. Ikuti perkembangan anak dan pastikan setiap anak mampu merealisasikan matlamat masing-masing.

4. Berikan Perhatian. Anak akan memberikan tindak balas yang positif terhadap ibu bapa yang ambil berat tentang diri dan masalah mereka. Memahami adalah lebih baik daripada menghukum. Ada ketikanya ibu bapa perlu bercerita kisah lampau, memberitahu kesilapan-kesilapan yang pernah mereka lakukan dan lain-lain sebagai satu teladan untuk pelajar. Ini penting untuk mewujudkan jambatan emosi, saling mempercayai dan saling bertanggungjawab. Sekiranya mereka lakukan kesilapan, pastikan mereka faham bahawa semua orang boleh lakukan kesilapan tetapi jelaskan kepada pelajar iaitu manusia berjaya ialah mereka yang belajar dari kesilapan. Sentiasa tanya apa matlamat mereka? Apa perancangan mereka? Sejauh mana progres mereka? Apa minat mereka? Apa kerjaya pilihan mereka? Dan sebagainya.

5. Penglibatan dan penyertaan. Salah satu kunci motivasi diri ialah penglibatan aktif dan penyertaan dalam setiap aktiviti kekeluargaan. Rangsang anak untuk terlibat dalam aktiviti luar, interaksi antara adik-beradik dan saling membantu. Anak akan lebih bermotivasi apabila mereka rasa diri mereka penting dan diperlukan. Oleh itu libatkan setiap pelajar dalam pelbagai kerja ibu bapa seperti memasak, mengemas rumah atau berkebun.

6. Penuhi keperluan. Ibu bapa mestilah sedar bahawa setiap anak memerlukan daya hidup, kasih sayang, kuasa memilih, keseronokan dan kebebasan. Misalnya, memberikan peluang anak yang tua menyelesaikan masalah-masalah kecil di kalangan adik-beradik. Atau memberi peluang kepada mereka memberikan pendapat dan pandangan sepert aspek hiasan dalaman atau sebagainya.

7. Kepelbagaian Emosi dan watak. Kekuatan memori ada kaitannya dengan tahap emosi yang membentuk pengalaman seseorang. Anak akan lebih mudah mengingat dan memahami sesuatu yang disertai dengan pendekatan emosi. Anak akan lebih bersedia untuk belajar apabila ada unsur-unsur kepelbagaian emosi dan watak kerana mereka tidak akan bosan. Jangan malu untuk mempelbagaikan watak, gaya dan pendekatan anda demi menarik minat anak terhadap apa yang mahu anda sampaikan.

8. Terapkan Aspek Kemahiran. Ajarkan mereka beberapa aspek kemahiran komunikasi dan sosial. Contohnya beri peluang untuk mereka 'memberi ceramah' atau melayan tetamu yang datang. Juga terapkan kepada mereka teknik pembelajaran yang berkesan, pengurusan masa, kaedah membaca, kaedah mengambil nota dan sebagainya. Tanam dalam fikiran 'boleh' dalam setiap yang dilakukan.

9. Amalkan Prinsip MAT - Mesra, Adil dan Tegas. Berkomunikasilah dengan mesra dan memberi layanan dan adil dan saksama tanpa memilih kasih dan dalam masa yang sama tegas dan berprinsip dalam mendisiplinkan anak-anak.

Wanita November 2001, Ms 118 - 119
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Postby smurf on Tue Mar 15, 2005 9:59 am

assalamua'laikum

thanks kak tirana sbb bagi ilmu yg sangat bermanfaat ni..
mmg best kalau kita dapat laksanakan semua nikan.. tapi bila nak applikasikan secara praktikal mmg mencabar betul.. :D :D ..betullah kata org tanggungjawab didik anak ni memang berat... disamping tu kita mesti selalu doa pada Allah mudah2han hati anak kita lembut dan mudah terima nasihat dan pengajaran kita... :D :D
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Postby Tirana_m on Wed Mar 16, 2005 5:56 am

Kemahiran keibubapaan elak anak terabai

Oleh Faridah Maludin

SEORANG ibu berkata: “Makcik dulu orang susah, nak menyara lima anak bersekolah, ditambah lagi dua anak saudara yang tinggal dengan makcik. Suami makcik hanya tentera dan selalu pula masuk hutan. “Bila suami pencen, kami dapat peluang sertai rancangan Felda. Masa itu anak semua masih bersekolah, yang sulung baru tingkatan empat. Makcik terus berdoa dan menanam azam sekolahkan anak hingga ke peringkat paling tinggi dan simpan duit untuk tunaikan haji.” Selepas 20 tahun, impian ibu itu tercapai di mana anak-anaknya berjaya dalam pelajaran dan kehidupan manakala beliau dan suaminya dapat menunaikan ibadat haji pada tahun 80-an.

Kisah hidup tadi mempamerkan kepada kita bagaimana tekad seorang ibu mendidik dan membesarkan anak sehingga berjaya walaupun terpaksa melalui pelbagai kepayahan. Ramai ibu bapa mempunyai hasrat menggunung terhadap anak mereka. Bagaimanapun, apabila anak tidak memenuhi impian, terdengarlah keluhan: “Kenapa anakku tidak seperti yang diimpikan?” Selain menghukum diri sendiri atas kegagalan itu, ada juga ibu bapa menyalahkan anak kerana degil dan susah untuk dibentuk.

Dalam menempuh cabaran globalisasi, pengalaman saja tidak mencukupi. Sebaliknya, ibu bapa perlu memiliki ilmu keibubapaan dalam mendidik anak cemerlang dalam semua aspek, sama ada rohani, mental dan fizikal. Ibu bapa yang berjaya dalam tugas mendidik anak sentiasa tenang dan yakin dalam tindakan mereka, lebih banyak memulakan langkah proaktif berbanding tindak balas reaktif.

Antara cara menjadi ibu bapa efektif ialah: · Ibu bapa perlu mempunyai matlamat keibubapaan yang jelas. Jangan hanya mahu anak-anak cemerlang, sebaliknya gariskan nilai kendiri yang ingin dibina secara khusus seperti taat, bertakwa, sabar, pintar, kuat bekerja, jujur, positif, bermotivasi, berilmu dan istiqamah. Ibu bapa perlu menyedari bahawa tugas mendidik adalah amanah yang mesti dilaksanakan. Ini kerana manusia dijadikan oleh Allah dengan tujuan tertentu, maka sudah pasti matlamat keibubapaan itu tidak boleh lari dari apa yang telah ditetapkan dan mesti selari ke arah keredaan Allah. Allah berfirman yang bermaksud:

“Peliharalah dirimu dan ahli keluargamu dari api neraka yang bahan bakarnya terdiri daripada manusia dan batu.” (Surah at-Tahrim, ayat 6)·

Sikap ibu bapa menjadi paksi yang akan menentukan kualiti anak. Keikhlasan, sikap positif, terbuka, sabar, prihatin, suka mendengar, tidak mudah menyanggah akan menyediakan iklim yang sihat untuk mendidik anak-nak. Sikap prihatin terhadap perkembangan anak, penampilan dirinya, sentiasa mengambil berat, selalu berbincang melahirkan hubungan yang mesra dan secara tidak langsung meningkatkan kepercayaan anak kepada ibu bapa.

Kelainan peribadi anak-anak, faktor usia, pengaruh luar akan menyulitkan tugas untuk menjadi ibu bapa berkesan kerana berdepan dengan anak kecil tentulah tidak sama apabila ibu bapa berhadapan kerenah anak remaja.

Apakah kemahiran diperlukan? ·

Ibu bapa perlu memahami sikap dan kemahuan anak yang inginkan perhatian dan saling berhubung (berkomunikasi). Ada kalanya anak menunjukkan sikap memberontak dan ibu bapa perlu mahir dalam tidak balas mereka. Masalah anak menjadi kronik disebabkan ibu bapa tidak memahami sikap anak dan suka melabel anak dengan nilai negatif.

Kemahiran berkomunikasi iaitu boleh menyampaikan dan mendengar dengan berkesan. Dalam proses interaksi, ibu bapa adalah pemimpin yang patut mengemudi supaya suasana menjadi gembira, aman dan tiada tekanan. Tingkatkan empati dan kesabaran dalam berkomunikasi, lebih-lebih lagi apabila berlaku konflik antara ibu bapa dan anak. · Anak-anak mempunyai ragam dan perangai berbeza. Apabila timbul konflik, cara penyelesaian terbaik ialah duduk berbincang kerana kedua pihak tidak boleh mengharap pihak satu lagi memahami kehendak mereka. Beri peluang anak meluahkan perasaan dan jadilah pendengar yang baik.

Ibu bapa perlu selalu mengukur diri bagi membentuk imej yang boleh menjadi teladan kepada anak kerana imej itu akan mempengaruhi perkembangan mereka. Contohnya, bila kita bertanggapan bahawa kita seorang ibu atau bapa yang tenang, sabar dan sentiasa cuba mengawal diri, sudah pastilah perkara ini akan mencorakkan tindakan kita. Oleh itu ibu bapa perlu menunjukkan contoh yang baik untuk anak membuat penilaian terhadap imej ibu bapa mereka. Jika imej terpancar itu positif, anak-anak akan mudah mendekati ibu bapa dan hubungan ibu bapa dengan anak akan terpelihara.

 Sentiasa memberikan anak motivasi. Ini bermakna ibu bapa perlu mempunyai motif, matlamat, niat dan niat untuk bertindak. Ibu bapa perlu memiliki hasrat dan matlamat yang tinggi untuk menjadi ibu bapa yang berkesan. Perkara inilah yang akan mendorong ibu bapa berusaha untuk mencapai cita-cita. Terdapat banyak cara untuk meningkatkan motivasi ibu bapa seperti menjadikan kejayaan anak sebagai matlamat, iktiraf kejayaan yang dicapai, walaupun tidak sebesar mana, dan bersedia berkongsi masalah.

Kesan globalisasi dan arus kemajuan masa kini boleh membawa padah kepada anak jika tiada kawalan. Ibu bapa perlu peka dengan cabaran semasa. Keruntuhan akhlak generasi masa kini amaran yang akan terus menjadi buruk jika ibu bapa, sebagai sekolah pertama anak-anak, tidak mampu mendidik mereka melawan ancaman yang boleh merosakkan anak.

Kesimpulannya, ibu bapa kini harus bersedia dan menyiapkan diri untuk menjadi ibu bapa yang berkesan. Sentuhan mahir ibu bapa mampu mengubah dunia. Mereka perlu sentiasa bersedia berhadapan dengan apa juga masalah dan kemungkinan. Ibu bapa perlu merenung ungkapan hikmat ini:

 “Bukanlah anak-anak yatim itu anak yang telah kematian ayah bondanya dan yang melarat dalam kemiskinan. Tetapi yang dipanggil anak yatim itu adalah anak yang ibunya tidak mempedulikannya dan ayahnya sibuk dengan urusan.”

Sumber: Wadah Wanita Islam
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Postby Tirana_m on Thu Mar 17, 2005 5:38 am

Mendidik anak-anak melalui pendekatan kreatif

Oleh Saliza Zainol

SUATU petang pada Ramadan, Amin, 2, mengambil sebotol susu dari peti sejuk. Tiba-tiba botol itu terlepas dari tangannya, jatuh ke lantai, botol pecah dan susu tumpah berlambak di lantai. Bayangkan apakah tindakan kita sebagai seorang ibu yang sedang berpuasa, letih, penat dan sedang sibuk menyediakan juadah berbuka puasa? Dapatkah kita mengawal emosi menghadapi anak sekecil ini? Kejadian itu mengingatkan saya, pada kejayaan seorang ahli sains perubatan yang mencipta kejayaan demi kejayaan dalam kajian dunia perubatan. Apabila dia ditanya mengenai faktor kejayaan dan kreativitinya dia menjawab:

"Ia bermula daripada pengalaman bersama ibu ketika berumur dua tahun. Saya hendak mengambil sebotol susu dari peti sejuk, tiba-tiba botol itu terlepas dari tangan, lalu jatuh, pecah dan susu tumpah di lantai."

Ibunya tidak menjerit, marah dan menghukumnya. Ibunya berkata:

"Robert, mama tidak pernah lihat kolam susu yang begitu cantik di dapur ini. Susu sudah tumpah, kita tidak boleh buat apa-apa, adakah awak hendak main dulu untuk beberapa minit kemudian kita bersihkan dapur ini?

Dia gembira dan terus bermain dalam lambakan susu itu. Ibunya kemudian berkata:

"Robert, lain kali jika kita tumpahkan susu begini, kita kena bersih dan mengemaskan mana-mana yang bersepah."

Ibunya berkata lagi:

"Robert, ini kita namakan satu ujikaji yang gagal bagaimana hendak membawa sebotol besar susu menggunakan dua tangan yang kecil. Mari kita ke laman dan isikan air ke dalam botol besar, kita akan lihat bagaimana membawa botol besar tanpa menjatuhkannya."

Mendengar ia satu permainan dan ujikaji, Robert seronok! Pada saat itu dia merasakan bahawa dirinya tidak perlu takut melakukan kesalahan, sebaliknya ia adalah peluang mempelajari sesuatu yang baru. Demikian juga dengan ujikaji sains. Jika ujikaji itu tidak berjaya pun, kita selalunya mendapat sesuatu yang baru.

Alangkah bagusnya jika semua ibu bapa memberikan tindak balas seperti ibu Robert lakukannya kepadanya? Anak-anak adalah anugerah Allah yang amat berharga. Oleh itu, menjadi tanggungjawab kita mendidik anak dengan acuan yang terbaik selari dengan syariat Allah. Sebab itu, Saidina Ali dan Imam Al Ghazali menganggap bahawa ibu bapa adalah sekolah pertama bagi anak. Oleh itu, ibu bapa yang menjadi sekolah pertama untuk anak perlu membuat persiapan dari segi fizikal, intelektual, emosi dan rohani. Hasilnya, mereka dapat mendidik anak sihat, kreatif dan seimbang dari keempat-empat aspek itu.

Ibu yang tidak sihat, cerdik dan tidak berilmu, tidak mungkin dapat memberi perhatian dan tunjuk ajar sepenuhnya kepada anak, apatah lagi bagi kanak-kanak yang sememangnya amat bergantung kepada seorang ibu. Seterusnya, ibu atau bapa yang mengalami tekanan emosi tinggi, tentu akan menyebabkan tekanan kepada anak.Tekanan emosi yang berpunca dari tekanan di tempat kerja, kerja rumah,hubungan kurang baik di antara pasangan akan menjadikan ibu atau bapa gagal mengawal emosi di hadapan anak. Mereka seterusnya akan menyelesaikan masalah anak yang meragam dengan tindakan yang tidak wajar seperti memarahi dan memukul anak.Tindakan sebegini jika berterusan akan menyebabkan kecelaruan mental kepada kanak-kanak sepanjang proses pembesaran mereka.

Islam menggariskan beberapa kaedah untuk kesejahteraan jasmani anak. Pertamanya, Islam mewajibkan bapa memberikan nafkah kepada anak dari sumber halal dan baik. Oleh itu, bapa mesti memastikan pekerjaan yang dilakukan adalah halal serta dilakukan dengan bersih dan amanah. Bapa yang mencari rezeki juga mesti menjauhi pekerjaan syubahat atau ada unsur keraguan, penipuan dan penyelewengan. Hasil daripada rezeki halal akan menumbuhkan jasad anak yang mudah dibentuk dan dididik.

Kewajipan kedua ialah menjaga kesihatan anak dengan memberikan makanan berkhasiat dan mengubati penyakit mereka. Ketiga, ibu bapa wajib mendidik anak menjauhi perkara yang boleh membawa kepada kemudaratan atau penyakit dengan mengetahui cara menjaga kebersihan, memilih makanan dan persekitaran sihat. Ibu bapa juga berkewajipan menggalakkan anak bersukan atau riadah untuk kesihatan badan. Dalam memberikan pendidikan mental, ibu bapa hendaklah memberikan pendidikan seimbang sejak kecil lagi. Ilmu fardu ain dan kifayah hendaklah diberikan sejak anak berusia lima atau enam tahun.

Kenalkan juga anak dengan kehebatan perjuangan Rasulullah saw, tamadun Islam dan kehebatan tokoh Islam, agar mereka tidak memandang Islam sebagai agama yang sempit. Malah mereka patut tahu bahawa Islam adalah cara hidup yang sebenar dan terbaik.

Sekiranya mereka memiliki keimanan mantap dan mengetahui perancangan musuh Islam, insya-Allah mereka akan terselamat daripada gejala sosial dan keruntuhan akhlak. Apatah lagi keruntuhan aqidah. Di samping itu, untuk menjana kehebatan minda anak-anak mesti diajar mencintai Rasulullah saw dan al Quran. Kecintaan kepada rasul dan al-Quran akan menjadikan seseorang mencintai ilmu. Ini kerana al Quran adalah sumber segala ilmu dan Rasulullah saw adalah pengasas kepada tamadun ilmu sebenar.

Source:Wadah Wanita Islam
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